EnergyQuest (“NrgQst”) is a public company established in Nevada, the developer of a novel coal-to-liquids proprietary process. The company prides itself as being a green energy company and has been securing technologies to build upon this vision.
EnergyQuest developed the liquid coal (clean coal) technology (NrgQst CWF) to reduce problems associated with:
Air emissions associated with the greenhouse effect, acid rain,metals and particulate matter (PM) from the combustion of coal. Increasing the energy efficiency of the coal and removal ofpotential fly ash components even on sub-grade lignite coal. The utilization of waste coal fines from mining and processingwhich has an enormous impact on the environment by saving theland area previously reserved for effluent ponds and gob piles.
Earth’s atmosphere is composed of a mixtureof gases, mostly nitrogen (78 percent) andoxygen (20.6 percent). Argon, methane,ozone, sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, andcarbon monoxide make up the rest of air. In addition to pure air, our atmosphere alsocarries water vapor, solid particles, and the pollutionwecreate with anemphasis on the greenhousegaseffect andacidrain byburning fossil fuels forenergy. One of air’s most important jobs is to provide living plants and animals (including humans!) with the gases they need. Humans and other animals breathe in oxygen they need; then they use that oxygen to metabolize their food. Oxygen is used to break down a sugar called “glucose” into carbon dioxide, water, and energy. The carbon dioxide and water are released when we exhale. This process is known as “respiration.” Plants respire too, but they also use the carbon dioxide, sunlight and water to make their own food, in a process called “photosynthesis.” The plants release most of the oxygen produced in this process into the atmosphere through their leaves.
Air pollution shortens the life of the average person by nine months worldwide.
Each year, approximately 1.5 billion urban citizens breathe air containing pollution which exceed World Health Organization (WHO) standards.
Every year 800,000 people die because of air pollution, and 70% of these are city dwellers.
Source: United Nations Environmental Program
- The greenhouse effect and global warming are not the same thing.
- –Global warming refers to a rise in thetemperature of the surface of the earth
- An increase in the concentration of greenhouse gases lead to an increase in the magnitude of the greenhouse effect. (Called enhanced greenhouse effect)
- –This results in global warming
- Acid rain is caused by the burning of fossil fuels and the natural eruptions of volcanoes.
- Burning oil, gas and coal in power plants, industrial plants, including the combustion of oil and gas in transportation vehicles releases sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) into the atmosphere.
- These gases mix with water droplets in the atmosphere creating weak solutions of nitric and sulfuric acids. When precipitation occurs these solutions fall as acid rain.
- Acid rain increases the acidity levels of rivers, lakes and seas. This can kill aquatic life.
- Acid rain increases the acidity levels of soils. This can kill vegetation.
- Acid rain has been found to destroy the roots and leaves of forests in Germany and Scandinavia have been destroyed as the result of acid rain emissions from the UK.
- Acid rain can erode buildings and monuments (particularly if they are made from limestone).
- Coal fired power plant emissions are being targeted for across the boardreductions due to their significant environmental implications.
- Emission reductions for pollutants such as Carbon Dioxide, Nitrous Oxideand Sulfur Dioxide have been targeted internationally for some years due totheir contributions to acid rain and the global warming effect.
- More recently however, the emissions focus has broadened to include heavymetals such as Mercury.
- Many states in the US have now legislated limits on mercury emissions.Federal legislation (Clean Air Mercury Rule – CAMR) regulating a stagedreduction in US mercury emissions from 2010 through to 2018 with morepending legislation.
- Fly ash and CO2 legislation is pending reviews.
- NrgQst proprietary clean coal technologies provide significant commercialand technical advantages in the field of mercury removal prior tocombustion from coal fired power stations.
- Mercury enters the environment as a result of normal breakdown ofminerals in rocks and soil through exposure to wind and water.
- Release of mercury from natural sources has remained fairlyconstant over the years.
- Still mercury concentrations in the environment are increasing asa result of human activity.
- Most of the mercury released from human activities isreleased intoair, through fossil fuel combustion, mining, smelting and solid wastecombustion.
- Some forms of human activity release mercury directly into soil orwater, for instance the application of agricultural fertilizers andindustrial wastewater disposal. All mercury that is released in theenvironment will eventually end up in soils or surface waters.
- Once mercury has reached surface waters or soils,microorganisms can convert it to methyl mercury, asubstance that can be absorbed quickly by most organismsand is known to cause nerve damage.
- Fish are organisms that absorb great amounts of methylmercury from surface waters every day.
- As a consequence, methyl mercury can accumulate in fishand in the food chains that they are part of.
- The effects that mercury has on animals are kidneysdamage, stomach disruption, damage to intestines,reproductive failure and DNA alteration.
- Industry (primarily electric power generation and cement production) is the leader
- Transportation is second
- Dramatic, rapid lifestyle change
- Lower, more efficient electric power usage
- Reduced use of fossil fuels for transportation
- Higher-density housing
- Lifestyle changes are very unpopular, but if not done reductions will be involuntary eventually
- Technological solutions
- Planting crops, trees, etc. but too slow, requires lots of water
- Nuclear, hydro, wind and solar power can help, but long lead time to build infrastructure for dramatic change
- Scrubbers can be built to remove CO2, but are very expensive
- NrgQst coal water fuel (CWF) process reducesSOx,NOx, Mercury, particulate matter (PM), fly ashand very efficiently and inexpensively and produces an energy efficient high grade fuel to lower fossil fuel consumption.
- Recent studies have revealed that about 30 percent of the minerals from theunderground coal mining operations are rejected on the surface as waste inthe United States.(1)
- This accumulation of about 3 billion standard tons of fine and coarse coalrefuse is mainly from coal cleaning processes.
- The coal fines that are rejected into the effluent ponds have a highpercentage of pyrite sulfur, which causes significant ground water pollution.
- Coal refuse disposal causes other environmental problems, such as acidformation, erosion and sediment control.
- An estimate by U. S. Bureau of Mines indicates 174,000 acres of coal refusedisposal remains to be reclaimed.(2)
(1) Sciulli, A. G., Ballock, G. P., and Wu, K. K., 1986, “Environmental Approach to Coal Refuse Disposal,”
Mining Engineering. pp 181.
(2) Tatscha, J. H., 1980, “Coal Deposits: Origin, Evolution, and Present Characteristics”, Tatsch Associates, Sudburgh, Massachusetts, pp 36.
- NrgQst introduces a truly Innovative Clean Coal Processing and Conversion Technology with NrgQst CWF.
- The technology can process and convert…
- brown coal (lignite), other coals and petroleumcoke into…
- a stable emulsified fuel with the average particlesize of >70 microns.
- NrgQst has developed a superior technology in size reduction, coalcleaning and stabilization and owns the rights and the intellectualproperty on the process.
- Similar technologies to NrgQst CWF have been commercialized onan industrial scale in Russia and China. Their coal-water fuel has limitedstability and has to utilize stabilizers.
- The basis of NrgQst’s technology is proprietary cavitations andultrasound destruction of coal molecule in a water media, which in factdestroys the coal molecules (long chain molecules). The process deliversa very stable and homogenous fuel without additives which provides aneven and stable burn and prevents load swings.
- NrgQst has an exclusive license with Helix Dynamics, LLC located inTexas for the pulverization and dehydration of coal.
- Their process has taken a number of years to develop; originally based onthe Windhexe “tornado in a can” design and patents through licensingagreements, but have been dramatically altered with the with differentdesigns for a vortex pulverizer that also includes dehydration. This isperfect all types of coal including reclamation of waste coal forpulverization in the >50 micron range and dehydration prior to airclassification that makes the coal suitable for coal water fuels.
- Subsequent particle size analysis performed using a Beckman Coulter LS Particle Size Analyzer showed a median Particle Diameter of 1.357, and 99.5% of the particles were under 2.5 μm (microns). Moisture content in this sample was measured at 18% moisture by weight prior to pulverization and 2% after pulverization.
- The proprietary air classification system utilizes conventional classifiersand classifiers that utilize the Coanda Effect—a completely differentoperating principle from that of typical centrifugal classifiers that canperformlimited simultaneous multiple classification of fine dry powder.
- The classifier works on the principle that the trajectory of a particle in acurrent of air is a function of the inertia and air resistance of that particleor, more simply, of the diameter of that particle.
- As a liquid passes through the mixing unit it is subjected to “controlledcavitation”.
- The heart of the device is a specially designed rotor that spins. Thespinning action generates hydrodynamic cavitation in the rotor cavitiesaway from the metal surfaces.
- The cavitation is controlled and therefore there is no damage. Asmicroscopic cavitation bubbles are produced and collapse, shockwavesare given off into the liquid which can heat and/or mix.
- The unit mixes in a totally different way and creates results that cannot be achieved with other equipment.
- This is all accomplished in a small footprint with no scaling inside the device..
- Sound waves having frequencies higher than those to which the humanear can respond (about 16 kHz) are called ultrasound.
- Ultrasound in the range of 20 to 100 kHz produces high energy wavessometimes referred to as power ultrasound.
- Power ultrasound is used for a variety of purposes including cleaning,welding, rupturing cell walls in biochemistry studies, and dispersingsolids in liquids.
- Image 3There are two outstanding traits of NrgQst CWF –
- Cost advantage over fuel oil and Environmental friendliness over coal
- As water and coal are mixed the initial calorific value of the fuel actuallygoes down approximately 4% less than the original raw coal, howeversince we reduce coal losses and combustion losses by as much as 25%on average the energy benefits far outweigh this occurrence.
- Fly ash is reduced by more than 90% reducing emissions significantlywhile converting (burning) 99% of the coal to energy.
- The liquid coal system can be easily scaled to any size.
- The fuel emulsions remains stable and in suspension for at least 24months without any chemical additives.
- 2 or 3 days after processing, the fuel becomes viscous similar to # 6 FuelOil (Bunker C).
- The fuel can be made from low cost brown coals and can also be used asa fertilizer for growing food crops.
- Physical properties of NrgQst CWF follow high coal incinerationorcombustion efficiency compared to existing layer-to-layercombustion or combustion of pulverized coal. Typical incinerationefficiency estimated to be 99.5%, increasing combustion efficiency asmuch as 25% on average.
- Safety benefits because of the lack of dry coal dust during preparationand storing, NrgQst CWF is a non-explosive fuel.
- Burning NrgQst CWF as a fuel in industrial boilers or for powergeneration removes the need to install ash removing systems.
- NrgQst CWF is indefinitely stable and plastic without the use of anychemical additives.
- Ease of storage in tanks and transportation through pipelines, tanktrucks or barges like any conventional petroleum fuel.
- Physical properties of NrgQst CWF are the same as conventionalNo.6Fuel Oil (Bunker C), but of better quality, due to the ultra low ash,metalsand sulfur content of the process fuel.
- The fuel burns at an average temperature of 1200oC instead of 1500oC.This is a real improvement over existing coal systems.
- The liquid coal fuel can be combusted in a conventional spray nozzleburner system or fluid bed and or a catalytic oxidation process.
- Existing steam-boilers and water-heating boilers which are using gas oroil are easily modified for using NrgQst CWF.
- NrgQst CWF is an excellent candidate for use in turbines and highspeeddiesel engines.
- Acres of land would be saved annually if the coal fines being rejectedinto the effluent ponds could be recovered by the NrgQst CWFprocess.